The East Bulgarian breed of horses is the widest-spread half-blood breed in Bulgaria. Work on its creation started with the opening of the two studs – Kabiuk near Shumen and Bozhurishte near Sofia at the end of 19th century.
After Bozhurishte military stud moved and was renamed to Stefan Karadzha stud near Balchik, the selection work focused mainly in northeastern Bulgaria.
The main purpose of the two tribal herds was to satisfy the needs of the newly-established Bulgarian army and to improve on the qualities of horses by private owners.
East Bulgarian horses originate from a wide variety of stallions and mares belonging to different breeds, imported from Russia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey and Germany. Notwithstanding the variety – local, local improved, Arabian, Anglo-Arabian, half-blood and purebred English stallions and mares, the purebred English stallions of Laudon, Sempiternal, Kozak, Emilyen, Tihany, Sanger, Vustershire, Gremy, Nero and Edelknabe formed the main influence over the linear structuring of the breed.
The half-blood stallions Fenek, Gallion, Furioso VII-3 and Betyar also played important part in breeding process, and they have yielded their own lines.
As a result of the dedicated work and strictly observed selection criteria in compliance with the goal set, a universal type of horse has been produced that is equally suitable for sports and work and was recognised as a breed in 1951.
Depending on the social and economic development of the country and the advances in army and agricultural mechanisation, selection goals and tasks change, too.
So, intended in the earliest stage for the army and agriculture, the next period was directed to breeding horses for the race-courses. The horses Vezna II, Gaus Green, Vomag, Ecole and others have won prizes in that direction at international competitions in steeple-chase in Padubice. The period before 1980 was characterised by greater influence of purebred English stallions, which would change radically after the races for East Bulgarian horses were closed.
At the first attempts to cross-breed East Bulgarian mares with Hanoverian stallions the selection goal changed. Nowadays, by using stallions of famous European half-blood breeds – Hanoverian, Holsteiner, Selle Francais etc. the race type changes to one that is more massive and suitable for the classic disciplines of the equestrian sports. The main task of the breeding programme is to produce a noble, harmoniously-grown and loyal half-blood horse, of very good riding qualities. The achievement of that goal is based on the natural riding inclinations of the East Bulgarian horse combined with the better sporting qualities of other half-blood breeds. The final result will be breeding a new generation of horses that will be in full accordance with the main goal – talented horses, suitable for dressage, showjumping, eventing and team-work.
The horses of that breed are relatively tall – 162-166 cm. Head is proportional, dry with straight profile. The neck is straight, long with a well-formed back neck; the withers are well-developed and clear, back and girth are of medium length. The croup has a well-formed slide and good muscles; the chest is deep, long and wide; the legs are strong, with well-expressed joints and tendons. These horses’ exterior characteristics put them closer to riding horses, rather than draft-horses. Producing racing horses during a rather long period of the breed development contributes to that as well.
The main group of tribal stallions and mares may be found in Kabiuk, Stefan Karadzha and Han Asparuh studs, as well as in several private studs located primarily in northeastern Bulgaria.
The Bedouin tribes of the desert, believing the horse to be a gift from God, told many romantic tales of the Arabian's beginnings. One such legend claims God fashioned the desert south wind into a creature who "shall fly without wings". No matter how the horse came to the desert, Bedouins took them as prized members of their households. Individual horses were selected for the gentle, affectionate nature, the striking look and proud spirit the breed is known for today. The Arabian was also bred to withstand long treks across the desert and the tribal wars which sometimes followed such trips. The Bedouins developed horses with strength, courage and stamina required for survival, and for the speed and responsiveness needed to win the tribal skirmishes. All in all, the Arabian Horse developed a significant list of attributes!
When Europeans sought to improve their saddle horses, Arabians were imported to cross with native strains. The standard procedure was to use purebred Arabians, especially stallions, to improve stock. The Byerly Turk, Darley Arabian and Godolphin Arabian are conspicuous in English Thoroughbred pedigrees. Similar improvement plans took place in France, Germany, Spain, Poland, Hungary, and Russia. Today, Arabians are found throughout the world and the blood of Arabians flows in all breeds of light horses.
Ancient Bedouin breeders were careful to record bloodlines and jealously guarded the purity of their Arabians. As a result, even though centuries have passed, today's Arabian cannot be mistaken for any other breed. Whether ridden English or western, shown in park classes or used for trail riding, Arabians have the same basic distinctive appearance.
The Arabian's head has a characteristic dished profile with a prominent eye, large nostrils and small teacup muzzle. His gracefully arched neck rises out of a long sloping shoulder and broad chest. A short, strong back and high trail carriage complete the picture.
Arabians come in grey, chestnut, bay and roan and an occasional solid black. Although some individuals will vary, most are between 14.2 and 15.2 hands in height and weigh between 800 and 1,000 pounds.
This is the most prestigious, expensive and numerous breed in our modern world. Its foundations were laid in the 17th-18th century in England on the basis of a sophisticated reproduction crossing between the local riding mares and eastern stallions including Arabian, Barbarian and Turkish types. The foundation stallions are believed to be Darley Arabian (Syria), Godlofin Barb (France) and Byerley Turk (Turkey).
halfblooded breed horses is created with aim to improve the qualities of sport horses.This breed guarantee one well-balanced
nerve system and calmier kind of horses.Usually in this sport the best achievements give horses with steady nerve system and calm character.This is one good basis on which can be build sport career of the horses who are participants in three of the most popular discipline -dressage, SJ and eventing,The different selections of the sport horse on the world have one end purpose - to achieve the effect of one calm,good muscular structured and exterrioral satisfactory horse.Typical representative
for this is half-blooded horse.He is suitable not only for the listed disciplines but for team and for amateur ride and others.In his veins flow the blood of some breeds horses.As we begin from the Arabian and the Torough breed and we stop to the much talked about in the last century -Oldenburg, Holsteiner, Selfrance, Hanoverian and others.
The horses found on the Faeroe Islands are one of the oldest and purest breeds of horses found today. They are comparable with the Icelandic Pony in that they also are of ancient origin and have been bred pure, at least in part, due to isolated conditions.
The Faeroe Islands are located in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands. There are seventeen inhabited islands and several islets and reefs, in total, covering 540 square miles. The climate is oceanic and mild with little variation in temperature. The islands see frequent fog and rain, approximately 60 inches a year. There are no reptiles or indigenous land mammals found in the Faeroe Islands. They are naturally treeless due to the strong western winds and frequent gales. They were first settled by Irish monks in approximately 700 A.D. and were colonized by Vikings around 800.
The Faeroes pony resemble horses brought to Europe from Asia in about 200 A.D. These small horses were brought to the islands by the early Celtic and Scandinavian settlers.
Before the formation of the the association for the Faeroes pony there were only five individuals still in existence. By 1988, the numbers had increased to 27 due to preservation efforts of concerned breeders. All the animals have been entered into the stud book and their blood types have been identified. They have also been evaluated for breeding purposes and 24 of the animals were approved for breeding.
Most Faeroes are bay with some black. They are also sometimes found in brown but never in gray or skewbald. Occasionally a palomino or pale dun appears in the breed. The hair is thick and grows very heavy in the winter.
The Holsteiner horse is the product of systematic breeding that has been ongoing in the northermost province of Germany, Schleswig-Holstein, for 750 years.
Originally the horse was valued by German farmers for his strength, steadiness and reliability, and by the military for his courage and agility. The age of mechanization and conditions in post war Germany necessitated a new direction for the breed. The Holsteiner developed into one of the great German sporting horses, particularly suited for jumping, dressage, driving and eventing. This was accomplished through careful infustion of English Thoroughbred and Anglo Norman blood which added elegance, refinement and jumping ability to the superior character of the Holsteiner foundation stock.
The modern Holsteiner is of medium frame and stands 16 to 17 hands with a powerful hind lag, strong back and loin. His arched neck rises from a well angled shoulder to a small head with a large intelligent eye. This conformation adapts easily to "self-carriage" - that expressive, elegant movement so essentail in dressage, driving and jumping.
When the Holsteiner begins to move, his reputation as one of the world's finest sport horses is assured. with his strong hauches providing implusion, he moves forward with elevation and suspension, producting an impression of strength, balance and elasticity. This fluid movement, coupled with renowned intelligence, willingness to work and kind temperment makes him the ideal sporthorse.
The Hanoverian is a noble, correctly proportioned warmblood horse with natural balance, impulsion and elegant, elastic movements characterized by a floating trot, a round rhythmic canter, and a ground-covering walk. The breed's historic home is in today's state of Lower Saxony, in northern Germany, the former Kingdom of Hanover where a flourishing horse-breeding industry has existed for 400 years. The Hanoverian has dispersed to all five continents and represents today one of the most prominent breeds of riding horses in the world.
What special attributes make the Hanoverian so valuable as an all-around riding and a performance competition horse excelling in many different disciplines?
Calm and level-headed, the Hanoverian keeps his cool even in difficult situations.
The Hanoverian gives himself willingly to the rider, accepting the aids and allowing himself to be rated.
Stamina, Bone, and Substance
The Hanoverian has been bred for centuries to stand up under a variety of demanding conditions and uses.
The Hanoverian in America
The American Hanoverian Society was incorporated in 1978 for the purpose of gathering the Hanoverians in North America in a registry, to preserve and promote the breed. Since then it has grown rapidly in membership, horse registration, and approved stallions.
While the AHS is an independent organization with its own constitution and bylaws, it maintains a close relationship with the German Hanoverian Breeders' Society (the ï¿½Verband hannoverscher Warmblutzuechterï¿½), regarding inspection, registration and licensing procedures and educational activities.
This is a considerably younger breed related to the Purebred Arabian. Its development was first started in the thirties of the nineteenth century on the stud farms of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, primarily at the Babolna Stud Farm in Hungary. The purpose of the selection was to produce an Arabian of a bigger frame and a more balanced temper while on the other hand all the positive features of the Purebred Arabian stayed the same, and above all the noble shape, hardiness and toughness, the correctness of the limbs and the efficiency and smoothness of the movements.
The breed take the name from her creator - the german count Anton Guenter Fon Oldenburg(1603-1667).
About the creating of Oldenburg breed the count has used a stallion Kramin and mare Frizone.
From Frizone is elaborated the Oldenburg breed as her blood is mixed with spanish blood with neapoliotan and cross-bred
english breed.During XIX century Thorough breeds Klivland bay ,Hanover and Franko Normano are selected about receiving of
the wonderful breed Oldenburg.
From the mixture this breeds there is one massive horse,high 170 cm.
Because of his tall height Oldenburg has been used in farming ,about pulling of carts with lots of cargo.
This is a universal breed of valuable work and sport characteristics.
It is the outcome of complicated crossbreeding: mares of English-Arabian, halfbred and improved local breeds were mated to Arabian, English-Arabian and Strelets stallions. The mares that were born were mated to Gidran stallions. This is a riding and draught breed. These horses have a lively, vigorous and sometimes even hot temper. Their hair colour is predominantly bay. Their constitution is strong, the body structure is harmonious, the movements are light and accurate. Until some years ago, Pleven horses were used for farming work and in the army. In the recent years, breeding work has been focused on bigger body size and better sporting characteristics. Therefore, along with purebred breeding, the method of blood infusion with suitable Thoroughbred stallions has also been used. The stallions are of average corporal dimensions as follows: withers height of 163 cm, chest measurement of 195 cm; shinbone measurement of 21.4 cm. The sizes of mares are 161, 188 and 20,5 cm resp ectively.
Trakehner is a light warmblood breed of horse, originally developed at the East Prussian state stud farm in the town of Trakehnen from which the breed takes its name. The Trakehner typically stands between 15.2 and 17 hands (62 to 68 inches, 157 to 173 cm). They can be any color, with bay, gray, chestnut and black being the most common, though the breed also includes few roan and tobiano pinto horses. It is considered to be the lightest and most refined of the warmbloods, due to its closed stud book which allows entry of only Trakehner, as well as few selected Thoroughbred, Anglo-Arabian, Shagya and Arabian bloodlines.